The focus in the discourse about global and national economies has for the past few decades been on how to strengthen and extend the role of markets, so let us go back to some fundamental principles and re-establish these issues. Public goods are defined in economic terms as "non-rival" and "non-excludable". In other words: these are goods that are almost impossible to trade.
This paper addresses the nature and magnitude of the global environmental challenge and the response of the international organizations responsible for environmental issues to that challenge. It assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the current global environmental policy and aid architecture by drawing upon evidence from independent evaluations of international organizations concerned with the global environment.
International discussion on effectiveness of aid emphasizes results. The Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) promise results in 2015. Many bilateral and multilateral donors are moving in the direction of management for results or by results, or have done so in the past few years. One element that contributed to this shift was the general feeling that aid had not sufficiently demonstrated its results. In many public debates on aid - for example, in Netherlands - this feeling was particularly strong in terms of demonstrating impact. Any reference to short-term results or results at the level of activites is pushed aside, because critics argue that there is no impact at the level of societal or state development. In these debates, evaluations are mentioned only rarely.